Present-day Atheism is not mainly based on refusal of God. It is refusal or ignoring the concept of Hereafter which is referred as Deism. This thinking style was established in Europe in 15th and 16th centuries in reaction to the theocracy. When European nations captured Muslim countries, this thinking style was also adopted by the Muslim elite. Atheism or Deism has developed impact on theology, politics, economics, ethics and social values of Muslim as well as Western countries.
Atheism was the dominant thinking style in 19th century but its scientific basis were abolished by the research of 20th century. The author has analyzed the history of Atheism and Deism, its impact on Western & Muslim societies and reaction of Religious thinking in response of the movement of Atheism & Deism.